Electromagnetic waves: Structure, properties, classification, and applications

Electromagnetic waves 2

Electromagnetic waves are now applied in many different technologies with the purpose of connecting and transmitting data. So what are electromagnetic waves? What are the structure, properties, and classification of this wave? Follow the article below to find out!

What are electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic waves, also known as electromagnetic radiation, are created by the combination of electric and magnetic fields oscillating perpendicular to each other. When electromagnetic waves appear, they will carry energy, information, and momentum through space.

Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves (transverse waves are waves whose oscillations take place in a direction perpendicular to the direction of energy transmission).

Electromagnetic waves 1

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The wavelength of an electromagnetic wave ranges from 400 to 700mm and is visible to the naked eye through the light emitted by the wave. Electromagnetic waves are capable of diffraction and interference.

In order to transmit electromagnetic waves, the following rules must be observed:

  • Modifies electromagnetic waves into electrical oscillations, or audio-frequency signals, to transmit images and sounds over long distances. We have AM as amplitude modulation and FM as frequency modulation.
  • The wave used is a high-frequency wave that is able to propagate.
  • Perform wave detection, also known as signal separation from high-frequency waves.
  • Proceed to amplify the received signal when the intensity is small.

What are the characteristics and properties of electromagnetic waves?

An electromagnetic wave is also a type of mechanical wave, so it possesses all the properties of mechanical waves such as refraction, reflection, interference, etc., and obeys the law of straight propagation.

Electromagnetic waves can propagate in all media: solid, liquid, gas, and vacuum. Depending on the environment, the wave speed will be different. In which the speed of electromagnetic waves propagating in a vacuum is the largest, c = 3.108 m/s.

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Electromagnetic waves, when oscillating, always form a forward triangle. When oscillating, the electromagnetic wave will carry the energy of a photon; the longer the wavelength, the smaller the photon’s energy.

Electromagnetic wavelengths ranging from a few meters to several kilometers used in communications are called radio waves.

Classification of electromagnetic waves

Ultra-short wave

Microwaves have wavelengths in the range of 1–10 m. This wave is characterized by high energy and low absorption in many media, but it can propagate rapidly through the ionosphere. With this property, microwaves are widely used in astronomy to study the universe.

Short wave

Short waves have wavelengths in the range of 10–100 meters. Similar to microwaves, shortwaves also have high energy levels. This type of wave will be reflected many times in the ionosphere and on the ground. With this characteristic, shortwave is applied in the field of underground communication and information.

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Medium wave

Medium waves have wavelengths in the range of 100–1000 m. This type of wave also has a high energy level and is strongly absorbed during the day. Medium waves are strongly applied in the field of yakan tusin to send and receive signals.

Long wave

Long waves have wavelengths over 100 m. Unlike the above three types of waves, long waves have very low energy and are easily absorbed by objects on the ground. As for the aquatic environment, it is not affected at all. Therefore, it is mainly used in underwater communication.

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Application

Electromagnetic waves are mainly used in:

  • Radio waves serve signal transmission (Wi-Fi). help kill insects in dried seeds, treat asthma, and tonsils, and destroy liver cancer, back pain, farsightedness, and hepatitis, …
  • Microwaves are used to produce microwave ovens.
  • T-rays are used to observe galaxies and stars, to see through objects, to manufacture heavy weapons, and to detect cancer cells.
  • Infrared rays help diagnose and destroy damaged tissues and cells, alarm bells, and the night vision of digital cameras.
  • Ultraviolet rays help treat cancer, sterilize, and kill bacteria.
  • Gamma rays are applied to produce gamma used in surgery, make telescopes to monitor giant black bugs, big explosions in the universe, etc.
  • X-rays are used in imaging, disease diagnosis, such as looking for damaged bones or foreign bodies in the body,…

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Above is detailed information related to electromagnetic waves, including their structure, properties, classification, and applications. We hope this article has helped you understand more about this type of wave. If you still have any questions, don’t hesitate to contact Thetech, a company specializing in distributing components, soldering irons, solder paste, etc., for answers!

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